What is Chronic Kidney Disease, or CKD?
Chronic Kidney Disease or CKD occurs when the kidneys start to perform poorly and so compounds that might normally be excreted remain in the blood stream. As the kidney performs less and less well, proteins like albumin can build up in the urine, and creatinine, urea and amino acids can build up in the blood. This is a disease on the increase in the Western World.
High Blood Pressure (hypertension) causes CKD, and vice versa. And heart disease is a major cause of death in people with CKD.
High risk groups include those people with hypertension, those with diabetes, and those with CKD running in the family.
Early detection can help prevent the disease worsening. In some cases dialysis or even a kidney transplant becomes essential.
Causes of CKD?
- High Blood Pressure
- Environmental toxins
- Lupus and other gut problems
- A swollen prostate in men
- Kidney stones
Symptoms of CKD?
- Need to urinate more often
- Tiredness, fatigue
- Puffiness around eyes, swollen ankles
- Muscle cramps at night
- Poor sleep
- Poor appetite
- Areas of dry itchy skin
- Gut problems
CKD and your gut?
Gut issues (caused by drugs like PPIs and antibiotics, or poor diet, too much sugar, stress, binge drinking smoking or parasites) are on the increase too in the modern world.
Recently, the finding of gut microbial DNA, linked to damage to the epithelial lining of the gut, has been linked to chronic kidney disease. It is also linked to inflammation in the body, aggravating the slow, steady damage.
Several studies have shown that CKD is linked with altered levels of bacteria in the gut. Two bacterial species that produce anti-inflammatory sodium butyrate are missing in CKD patients. These bacteria help reduce damage and attack on the gut wall. However, CKD seems associated with an increase in about 19 gut species, 12 which produce urea, 5 that produce uricase and three that produce enzymes involved in the synthesis of indole a p-cresol. In particular there is a large increase in Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria.
It also seems that probiotics, enhanced by the right diet can have a significant influence on the gut bacteria in CKD.
The multi-strain Probiotic supplements should include strains of Lactobacillus like rhamnosus, known to affect the gut lining, plus Bifidobacterium (like longum and infantis) and the diet should focus away from large amounts of animal protein and major instead on pulses, whole grains, vegetables and fruits, rather as the Rainbow Diet does.
Go to: The Rainbow Diet
- de Andrade LS, Ramos CI, and Cuppari L. The cross-talk between the kidney and the gut: implications for chronic kidney disease. Nutrire 2017, 42:27. doi: 10.1186/s41110-017-0054-x.